Course Syllabus for English-Taught Majors

“Polymer Physics” Course Syllabus



Course Code 09042006

Course CategoryMajor Core

Majors: Polymer Chemistry and Physics, Polymeric Materials, Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Chemistry


Total Hours36        


InstructorHuang, He

Textbook: “Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials, Third Edition / by J.M.G. Cowie and Valeria. 高分子化学与物理 / (英)何威杰,(英)劳拉著;黄鹤译.—北京: 机械工业出版社,2013.12


—Flory (1953) “Principles of Polymer Chemistry”

—de Gennes (1979) “Scaling Concepts in Polymer Physics”

—Doi & Edwards (1986) “The Theory of Polymer Dynamics”

—Grosberg & Khokhlov (1994) “Statistical Physics of Macromolecules”

—Rubinstein & Colby (2003) “Polymer Physics”

—Sperling (2006) “Introduction to Physical Polymer Science”

—Strobl (2007) “The Physics of Polymers”



Course Description

Polymer physics is about the physical properties of a polymer and polymeric materials. Polymer physics, together with polymer chemistry, constitutes polymer science. It also plays a significant role in the development of polymer engineering. It is the fundamental knowledge required for anyone who is to be engaged in polymer industry. This course presents the mechanical, electrical, and optical, etc., properties of polymers with respect to the underlying physics and physical chemistry of polymers in solution, melt, and solid state. Topics include thermodynamics of polymer solutions, blends, crystallization; molar mass, chain dimensions, conformation and morphology of polymer chains in solutions, melts, blends, and block copolymers; an examination of the structure of glassy, crystalline, and rubbery elastic states of polymers; liquid crystallinity, microphase separation. Case studies include relationships between structure and property in technologically important polymeric materials.

Course Contents:

Chapter 1 Polymers in Solution

1.1 Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions

1.2 Ideal Mixtures of Small Molecules

1.3 Nonideal Solutions

1.4 Flory–Huggins Theory: Entropy of Mixing

1.5 Enthalpy Change on Mixing

1.6 Free Energy of Mixing

1.7 Limitations of the Flory-Huggins Theory

1.8 Phase Equilibria

1.9 Flory–Krigbaum Theory

1.10 Location of the Theta Temperature

1.11 Lower Critical Solution Temperatures

1.12 Solubility and the Cohesive Energy Density

1.13 Polymer–Polymer Mixtures

1.14 Kinetics of Phase Separation





Chapter 2 Polymer Characterization - Molar Masses

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Molar Masses, Molecular Weights, and SI Units

2.3 Number-Average Molar Mass Mn

2.4 End-Group Assay

2.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions

2.6 Osmotic Pressure

2.7 Light Scattering

2.7.1 Scattering from Large Particles

2.8 Dynamic Light Scattering

2.9 Viscosity

2.9.1 Viscosity-Average Molecular Weight

2.10 Gel Permeation Chromatography

2.11 MALDI





Chapter 3 Polymer Characterization - Chain Dimensions, Structures, and Morphology

3.1 Average Chain Dimensions

3.2 Freely Jointed Chain Model

3.3 Short-Range Effects

3.4 Chain Stiffness

3.5 Treatment of Dilute Solution Data

3.5.1 The Second Virial Coefficient

3.5.2 Expansion Factor a

3.5.3 Flory–Fox Theory

3.5.4 Indirect Estimates of Unperturbed Chain Dimensions

3.5.5 Influence of Tacticity on Chain Dimensions

3.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

3.7 Infrared Spectroscopy

3.8 Thermal Analysis

3.9 Wide-Angle and Small-Angle Scattering

3.9.1 Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering

3.9.2 Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS)

3.9.3 Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

3.10 Microscopy

3.10.1 Optical Microscopy

3.10.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy

3.10.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy

3.10.4 Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy





Chapter 4 The Crystalline State and Partially Ordered Structures

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Mechanism of Crystallization

4.3 Temperature and Growth Rate

4.4 Melting

4.4.1 Effect of Crystallite Size on Melting

4.5 Thermodynamic Parameters

4.6 Crystalline Arrangement of Polymers

4.6.1 Factors Affecting Crystallinity and Tm Symmetry Intermolecular Bonding Tacticity Branching and Molar Mass

4.7 Morphology and Kinetics

4.8 Morphology

4.8.1 Crystallites

4.8.2 Single Crystals

4.8.3 Hedrites

4.8.4 Crystallization from the Melt

4.8.5 Spherulites

4.9 Kinetics of Crystallization

4.9.1 Isothermal Crystallization

4.9.2 The Avrami Equation

4.9.3 Deviations from Avrami Equation

4.10 Block Copolymers

4.11 Historical Development of Polymer Liquid Crystals

4.12 Liquid Crystalline Phases

4.13 Identification of the Mesophases

4.14 Lyotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers

4.15 Thermotropic Main-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers

4.16 Side-Chain Liquid Crystal Polymers

4.17 Chiral Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers





Chapter 5 The Glassy State and Glass Transition

5.1 The Amorphous State

5.2 The Glassy State

5.3 Relaxation Processes in the Glassy State

5.4 Glass Transition Region

5.4.1 The Glass Transition Temperature, Tg

5.4.2 Experimental Demonstration of Tg Measurement of Tg from V-T Curves Thermal Methods

5.4.3 Factors Affecting Tg Chain Flexibility Steric Effects Configurational Effects Effect of Cross-Links on Tg

5.5 Theoretical Treatments

5.5.1 The Free-Volume Theory

5.5.2 Gibbs-Di Marzio Thermodynamic Theory

5.5.3 Adam-Gibbs Theory

5.6 Dependence of Tg on Molar Mass

5.7 Structural Relaxation and Physical Aging





Chapter 6 Rheology and Mechanical Properties

6.1 Introduction to Rheology

6.2 The Five Regions of Viscoelastic Behavior

6.3 The Viscous Region

6.3.1 Shear Dependence of Viscosity

6.3.2 Kinetic Units in Polymer Chains

6.3.3 Effect of Chain Length

6.3.4 Temperature Dependence of h

6.3.5 Concentration Dependence of Viscosity

6.3.6 Time-Dependent Behavior

6.4 Mechanical Properties

6.4.1 Interrelation of Moduli

6.5 Mechanical Models Describing Viscoelasticity

6.6 Linear Viscoelastic Behavior of Amorphous Polymers

6.6.1 Creep

6.6.2 Stress–Strain Measurements

6.6.3 Effect of Temperature on Stress-Strain Response

6.6.4 Boltzmann Superposition Principle

6.6.5 Stress Relaxation

6.7 Dynamic Mechanical and Dielectric Thermal Analysis

6.7.1 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA)

6.7.2 Dielectric Thermal Analysis (DETA)

6.7.3 Comparison Between DMTA and DETA

6.8 Time-Temperature Superposition Principle

6.9 Dynamic Viscosity

6.10 A Molecular Theory for Viscoelasticity

6.11 The Reptation Model




Chapter 7 The Elastomeric State

7.1 General Introduction

7.1.1 Natural Rubber

7.2 Experimental Vulcanization

7.3 Properties of Elastomers

7.4 Thermodynamic Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity

7.5 Nonideal Elastomers

7.6 Distribution Function for Polymer Conformation

7.7 Statistical Approach

7.7.1 Experimental Stress–Strain Results Simple Extension Simple Compression Pure Shear Large Elastic Deformation

7.8 Swelling of Elastomeric Networks

7.9 Network Defects

7.10 Resilience of Elastomers




Chapter 8 Structure–Property Relations

8.1 General Considerations

8.2 Control of Tm and Tg

8.2.1 Chain Stiffness

8.2.2 Intermolecuar Bonding

8.3 Relation Between Tm and Tg

8.4 Random Copolymers

8.5 Dependence of Tm and Tg on Copolymer Composition

8.6 Block Copolymers

8.7 Plasticizers

8.8 Crystallinity and Mechanical Respons

8.9 Application to Fibers, Elastomers, and Plastics

8.10 Fibers

8.10.1 Chemical Requirements Linear Polyesters

8.10.2 Mechanical Requirements for Fibers Spinning Techniques Melt Spinning Wet and Dry Spinning Drawing, Orientation, and Crystallinity Modulus and Chain Stiffness Other Factors

8.11 Aromatic Polyamides

8.12 Polyethylene

8.13 Elastomers and Cross-Linked Networks

8.13.1 Cross-Linking

8.13.2 Creep in Cross-Linked Polymers

8.13.3 Additives

8.14 Plastics

8.14.1 Plastic Selection for Bottle Crate Manufacture

8.14.2 Medical Applications

8.15 High-Temperature Speciality Polymers

8.16 Carbon Fibers

8.17 Concluding Remarks





Chapter 9 Polymers for the Electronics Industry

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Polymer Resists for IC Fabrication

9.3 The Lithographic Process

9.4 Polymer Resists

9.4.1 Sensitivity

9.4.2 Resolution

9.5 Photolithography

9.5.1 Positive Photoresists

9.5.2 Negative Photoresists

9.6 Electron Beam Sensitive Resists

9.6.1 Positive Resists

9.6.2 Negative Resists

9.7 X-ray and Ion Sensitive Resists

9.8 Electroactive Polymers

9.9 Conduction Mechanisms

9.10 Preparation of Conductive Polymers

9.11 Polyacetylene

9.12 Poly(p-phenylene)

9.13 Polyheterocyclic Systems

9.13.1 Polypyrrole

9.13.2 Sulfur Compounds

9.14 Polyaniline

9.15 Poly(Phenylene Sulfide)

9.16 Poly(1,6-heptadiyne)

9.17 Applications

9.18 Photonic Applications

9.19 Light-Emitting Polymers

9.19.1 Applications

9.20 Nonlinear Optics

9.21 Langmuir–Blodgett Films

9.22 Optical Information Storage

9.23 Thermorecording on Liquid Crystalline Polymers





Made by Huang, He

November 11, 2016