Course Syllabus for English-Taught Majors

Modern Inorganic Synthetic ChemistryCourse Syllabus

Course Code09042001

Course CategoryMajor Core



Total Hours36 Hours         Credit2

Lecture Hours2 Hours          Lab Hours0         Practice Hours0

InstructorsTao Wu

TextbooksRuren Xu, Wenqin Pang, Qisheng Huo, Modern Inorganic Synthetic ChemistryElsevier Press2011

Teaching Aim

Synthetic chemistry is at the core of modern chemistry. It provides the most powerful means for chemists to create the material foundation for our envisioned world. Its main objective is to create a large variety of compounds, phases, materials, and ordered chemical systems needed by our rapidly advancing society, going considerably beyond just finding and synthesizing naturally existing compounds. The course aims to help students: (1) understand the importance and development of inorganic synthetic chemistry and their applications of inorganic synthesis in the modern industry; (2) master some inorganic synthetic methods commonly used, such high temperature synthesis, low temperature and low pressure synthesis, high pressure synthesis, hydrothermal and solvothermal synthesis, chemical vapor deposition, and microwave-assisted inorganic synthesis etc.; (3) master synthetic methods and chemical properties of some important and typical inorganic compounds, such as fullerenes, polyoxometalates, semiconductor nanoclusters, gold cluster and inorganic polymer; (4) master synthetic methods and applications of some important and typical inorganic materials, including ordered microporous inorganic zeolite and ordered mesoporous materials; (5) master the frontier of inorganic synthesis and preparative chemistry, including biomimetic synthesis and inorganic crystalline porous materials; (6) understand the latest development trend of inorganic synthetic chemistry from the published literatures.

Chapter One: Introduction of Modern Inorganic Synthetic Chemistry

   Week 12 hours

1.1 Development of new syntetic reactions, synthetic routes, technologies and assoicated basic scientific studies

1.1.1 The basic inorganic compound

1.1.2 Inorganics and materials with specific structures

1.1.3 Inorganics and materials in special aggregate states

1.1.4 Assembly of high-level ordered structures

1.1.5 Composition, assembly and hybridization of inorganic functional materials

1.2 Basic research in support of green synthesis

1.3 Basic research on synthetic and preparative routes under extreme conditions

1.4 Biomimetic synthesis and applications of biotechnology in inorganic synthesis

1.5 Rational Synthesis and molecular engineering of inorganic compounds with specific structures and functions

Chapter Two: High-Temperature Synthesis

   Week 12 hours

2.1 Attainment of high temperature laboratory furnaces and related techniques

2.1.1 Resistance furnaces

2.1.2. Crystal grower equipment

2.1.3 Arc melting furnace

2.1.4 Spark plasma sintering

2.2 Types of high-temperature synthetic reactions and routes

2.3 High-temperature solid-state reaction

2.3.1 Mechanism and characters of solid-state reaction

2.3.2 Some aspects of synthesis via solid-state reaction

2.4 Preparation of rare earth containing materials

2.5 Sol-gel process and precursors in high-temperature solid synthesis

2.6 Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS)

2.7 High-temperature preparation of metal vapors and active molecules for use in cryosynthesis

2.8 High-temperature electrolysis in molten salts system

Chapter Three: Synthesis and Purification at Low Temperature & Low Pressure

   Week 12 hours

3.1 Attainment and measurement of low and ultralow temperatures

3.1.1 Attainment

3.1.2 Thermometry

3.2 Vacuum technique and its application in inorganic synthesis

3.2.1 Vacuum attainment

3.2.2 Vacuum measurement principles and typical measurement ranges

3.2.3 Common vacuum equipments in the laboratory

3.3 Purification and separation of inorganics at low temperature

3.3.1 Low temperature fractional condensation

3.3.2 Low temperature fractional distillation

3.3.3 Low temperature selective adsorption

3.3.4 Low temperature chemical separation

3.4 The synthesis of volatile inorganic compounds at low temperature

3.5 Formation of rare-gas molecules at cryogenic condition

3.6 Inorganic synthesis in liquid ammonia

3.7 Cryosynthesis of unusual inorganic compounds

Chapter Four: Hydrothermal and Solvothermal Synthesis

   Week 12 hours

4.1 Foundation of hydrothermal and solvothermal syntheses

4.1.1 Features of hydrothermal synthetic reaction

4.1.2 Classification of hydrothermal reactions

4.1.3 Property of reaction medium

4.2 Functional materials from hydrothermal and solvothermal systems

4.2.1 Single crystals

4.2.2 Zeolites and related materials

4.2.3 Organic-inorganic hybrid materials

4.2.4 Ionic and electronic conductors

4.2.5 Nanomaterials

4.3 Hydrothermal biochemistry

4.3.1 Warm pond: hydrothermal seafloor

4.3.2 Evolutionary tree and time evidence

4.3.3 Chemical latter: synthesis and evolution

4.3.4 Expectation

4.4 Supercritical water- a novel reaction system

4.4.1 Properties of supercritical water

4.4.2 Chemical applications of supercritical water

4.4.3 Technological applications of supercritical water

4.5 Techniques and methods

4.5.1 Reaction containers

4.5.2 Reaction control systems

4.5.3 General experimental procedure

4.6 Ionothermal synthesis

Chapter Five: High Pressure Synthesis

   Week 12 hours

5.1 Experimental methods of inorganic synthesis under high pressure

5.1.1 High pressure apparatus

5.1.2 Choice of pressure transmitting media

5.1.3 Pressure calibration

5.1.4 Generation of high temperature

5.2 Effects of high pressure on basic states of matters

5.2.1 Gas under high pressure

5.2.2 Solids under high pressure

5.2.3 Water under high pressure

5.3 Effects of high pressure on inorganic chemical reactions

5.3.1 Influence of pressure on thermodynamics and dynamics of inorganic reaction

5.3.2 The impact of pressure on inorganic reaction

5.4 Effects of high pressure on crystal and electronic structures of inorganic compounds

5.5 Major roles of high pressure method in inorganic synthesis

5.6 Some important inorganic compounds synthesized under high pressure

Chapter Six: Chemical Vapor Deposition

   Week 12 hours

6.1 Brief history of chemical vapor deposition

6.2 Technical fundamentals of CVD

6.2.1 Simple Pyrolysis Reactions

6.2.2 Reduction-oxidation depositions

6.2.3 Deposition through synthetic reactions

6.2.4 Deposition through chemical mass transportation

6.2.5 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)

6.2.6 Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition (ALCVD)

6.2.7 Enhanced deposition by other energy resources

6.3 Equipment of chemical vapor deposition

6.3.1 Equipment for manufacture of ultrapure semiconductor poly-Si

6.3.2 Equipment of hot wall LPCVD

6.3.3 Equipment of plasma-enhanced CVD

6.3.4 Equipment of Atomic layer deposition (ALD)

6.4 Some theoretical models of CVD technology

6.4.1 The simple CVD kinetic model

6.4.2 LPCVD simulation model

6.4.3 Thermodynamic coupling model of activated low-pressure CVD diamond synthesis

6.5 Thermodynamic coupling during the low-pressure CVD diamond growth

6.6 Nonequilibrium phase diagrams for the low-pressure CVD diamond growth

Chapter Seven: Microwave-Assisted Inorganic Synthesis

   Week 12 hours

7.1 Basic principle of microwave radiation, microwave heating and microwave equipment

7.2 Synthesis of inorganic materials under microwave heating

7.2.1 Reaction in liquid media

7.2.2 Solid-state reactions

7.3 Synthesis of inorganic materials assisted with different microwave frequencies

7.4 Plasma-assisted synthesis of inorganic materials

7.5 Some of the basic conclusions and outlooks about microwave radiation assisted chemistry

Chapter Eight: Synthetic Chemistry of Cluster --- Fullerenes

   Week 12 hours

8.1 Synthesis

8.1.1 Resistive heating and arc-discharge of graphite

8.1.2 Laser vaporization

8.1.3 Solar generation

8.1.4 Combustion synthesis

8.1.5 Thermal pyrolysis

8.1.6 Plasma Synthesis

8.1.7 Chemical synthesis

8.2 Characterization of fullerenes

8.3 Chemical reactions

8.3.1 Buckminsterfullerene C60

8.3.2 Endofullerene

Chapter Nine: Synthetic Chemistry of Cluster --- Polyoxometalates

   Week 12 hours

9.1 Description of the clusters

9.1.1 Definition of a cluster and the clusters

9.1.2 Classification of the clusters

9.2 Synthesis of the oxo TM clusters under hydrothermal conditions

9.2.1 Substituted synthesis on polyoxometalate (POM) cages

9.2.2 Lacunary directing synthesis via the lacunary sites of POM fragements

9.2.3 Synergistic directing synthesis via two or more lacunary XW9 fragements

9.2.4 Designed synthesis via the peripheral substitution of Ni6PW9 SBUs

9.3 Synthesis of the oxo lanthanide clusters under hydrothermal conditions

9.3.1 Induced synthesis via the ligands

9.3.2 Synergistic coordination between the first and secondary ligands

9.4 Synthesis of the oxo main group clusters under hydrothermal conditions

9.4.1 Templated synthesis of borates

9.4.2 Templated synthesis of germinates and borogermanates

9.5 Synthesis of the chalcogenide cluster under hydrothermal conditions

9.5.1 Tetrahedral clusters

9.5.2 Open-framework chalcogenides made from different tetrahedral clusters

Chapter Ten: Inorganic Polymers

   Week 12 hours

10.1 Polyphosphazenes

10.2 Synthesis and assembly chemistry of cyclophosphazene

10.3 Applications of cyclomatrix polyphosphazenes

10.4 Silicones

10.4.1 Polysiloxanes and polysilane

10.4.2 Polysilaethers bearing Si-H bond

Chapter Eleven: Ordered Microporous Materials --- Zeolites

   Week 22 hours

11.1 Porous materials

11.2 Zeolite and its structure

11.2.1 Basic structural unit of the zeolite

11.2.2 Framework structure of zeolites and molecular sieve

11.3 The synthesis of zeolite

11.3.1 Hydrothermal zeolite synthesis

11.3.2 Zeolite crystallization and formation mechanism

11.4 Zeotype: zeolite-like meterials

11.5 New strategies and new trends of zeolite synthesis

11.6 Basic of ordered mesoporous materials

11.7 Understanding the synthesis of mesoporous mateials

11.7.1 Synthetic system

11.7.2 Formation mechanism of mesostructure: liquid crystal template and cooperative self-assembly

11.7.3 Interaction between organic template and inorganic species

11.7.4 The surfactant packing parameter

11.8 Typical mesostructures and mesoporous materials

11.8.1 Two-dimensional hexagonal structure

11.8.2 Cubic channel mesostructures

11.8.3 Cubic caged structures

11.8.4 Deformed mesophases, low ordered mesostructures and other possible mesophases

11.8.5 Siliceous mesostructured cellular foams

11.8.6 New mesostructure

11.9 Synthesis strategies for mesoporous silica

11.10 Morphology control in mesoporous materials

11.11 New compositions: nonsilica-based mesoporous materials

11.12 Porous carbon materials

11.13 Ordered macroporous materials

11.14 Challenges for porous materials scientist


Chapter Twelve: Host-Guest Functional Materials

   Week 12 hours

12.1 Metal clusters in zeolites

12.1.1 Preparation approaches of metal clusters

12.1.2 Alkali metal clusters

12.1.3 Metal clusters of silver

12.1.4 Noble metal clusters

12.1.5 Clusters of metal oxides

12.2 Encapsulation of dyes in zeolites

12.3 Polymers and carbon matters in zeolites

12.4 Semiconductor nanoparticles in zeolites

12.5 Metal complexes in molecular sieves

12.5.1 Incorporation of metal-pyridine ligand complexes

12.5.2 Incorporation of metal-schiff base complexes

12.5.3 Encapsulation of porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes

Chapter Thirteen: Biomimetic Synthesis

   Week 12 hours

13.1 Biomineralization and its mimetic inorganic materials

13.1.1 Introduction

13.1.2 Biomineralization Supermolecular preorganization Interfacial molecular recognition Vectorial regulation Cellular processing

13.1.3 Diatoms and their mimetic mineralization materials

13.1.4 Nacre and its mimetic mineralization

13.2 Biotemplated inorganic materials

13.3 Biomimetic synthesis of inorganic chiral materials

13.4 Bio-inspired multiscale inorganic materials


Assessment MethodsOpen-book examination

Mid-term (30%)  Presentation (30%)  Final exam (40%)



                        Made by  :   Tao Wu

                                    Date  : 2016-11-08