Course Syllabus for English-Taught Majors

Analytical Chemistry Part ICourse Syllabus

 

Course Code09041035

Course CategoryMajor Basic

MajorsChemistry

SemesterFall

Total Hours72 Hours         Credit3

Lecture Hours72 Hours

InstructorsJilin Yan

Textbooks

Na Li, John J. Hefferren. Ke'an LiQuantitative Chemical Analysis,Beijing University Press, 2009, 1st edition

Douglas A. Skoog, F. James Holler, Stanley R. Crouch, Principle of Instrumental Analysis, Cengage Learning, 2006, 6th edition

 

References

Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West, F. James Holler, Stanley R. CrouchFundamentals of Analytical ChemistryBrooks Cole; 8 edition (August 7, 2003)

Gary D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry, Wiley; 6 edition (March 14, 2003)

Robert Kellner, Jean-Michel Mermet, Matthias Otto, Miguel Valcarcel, H. Michael Widmer Analytical Chemistry: A Modern Approach to Analytical Science, Wiley-VCH; 2 edition (October 8, 2004)

David T. Harvey, Modern Analytical Chemistry, McDraw-Hill, 1999 1st edition

Daniel C. Harris, Quantitative Chemical Analysis, W. H. Freeman, 2015, 9th edition

 

 

Teaching Aim

    Analytical chemistry is a discipline that studies and uses instruments and methods to separate, identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Taking this course, the students will develop the basic concepts of quantity in chemistry, and will get a systematic knowledge on the four basic chemical equilibriums and their applications for analyses, such as for titrimetric and gravimetric analyses, working principles of typical analytical instruments, their applicability over different forms of species. Through this course and related training, the students could also develop the ability of resolving related practical problems with suitable analytical strategies and technologies.

Chapter 1 Introduction on Analytical Chemistry

课时:1周,共4课时

Content

1.1  The definition of analytical chemistry, function

Teaching Outline: Classification and Nomenclature, the aim, the function of analytical chemistry

1.1  The history and recent development

Teaching Outline: recent development; definition of on-line, real-time and in-vivo; gravimetry, titrimetry

1.2 Quantitative and qualitative analysis

Teaching Outline: Quantitative analysis; qualitative analysis; macro, micro, trace, and ultra-trace analysis

1.3 Introduction on titration analysis

Teaching Outline: titrimetry; standard solution; stoichiometric point, end point; classification of titrimetry; direct titration, back titration, replacement titration, indirect titration; calculations in titrimetry

1.4 Sample collection and pretreatment

Teaching Outline: preparation of inorganic samples; sample collection; dry ashing, wet ashing, microwave digestion

Problems

1. What does a primary substance mean? What are the general requirements on primary substances?

2. List at least three examples of application of analytical techniques you have used.

 

Chapter 2 Errors and Data processing in Quantitative Analysis

课时:2周,共6课时

Content

2.1 Errors in analytical chemistry

Teaching Outline: Systematic errors, random errors, precision and accuracy, deviation and error, average deviation and standard deviation, mean,

2.2 Distribution of random errors

Teaching Outline: distribution of random error, the Gaussian curves, areas under a Gaussian curve, standard error of the mean, confidence intervals,

2.3 Statistic of limited data

Teaching Outline: T distribution; compare a mean with a true value (t test); compare two precisions (F test); comparing two means (u test)

2.4 Methods for the improvement of accuracy

Teaching Outline: selection of analytical methods, elimination of systematic errors

2.5 Regression equation

Teaching Outline: regression equation, correlation coefficient

2.6 significant figures

Teaching Outline: significant figures, rounding rules

Problems

1. What do accuracy and precision mean?

2. How to tell whether a suspicious data in a data set should be retained or rejected?

3. Does a high confidence level always favorable in the determination a confidence interval, why?

 

Chapter 3 Acid-base Equilibriums and Acid-Base Titrations

课时:3周,共12课时

Content

3.1 Acid-base titration in aqueous solutions

Teaching Outline: Acid-base theories, dissociation constant, concentration, activity and activity coefficient

3.2 Distribution of various forms in acid-base solution

Teaching Outline: analytical concentration and equilibrium concentration, influence of acidity on the forms in acid-base solution , distribution fractions

3.3 calculation of pH

Teaching Outline: proton balance equation, calculation of various solutions, strong acids or bases, weak acids or bases, monoprotic acid, polyprotic acid

3.4 Buffer solution for acid-base pairs

Teaching Outline: buffer capacity, calculation of pH value of buffer solutions, common buffer solutions and their preparations

3.5 Acid-base indicators

Teaching Outline: working mechanism of indicators, common indicators and their transition range, mixed indicators

3.6 acid-base titration

Teaching Outline: titration curves; the end point break; titration in strong acid (base), polyprotic acids and mixtures; selection of indicators; titration error and the calculations

3.7 application of acid-base titration

Teaching Outline: preparation of standard solutions and their calibration; influence of carbon dioxide in titration; application of acid-base titration: titration of boric acid, Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination

Problems

1. What does a dissociation constant mean?

2. What does a buffer solution mean? Give the details on how to prepare a pH 7.0 phosphate buffer (100mM).

3. How does a titration error occur in an acid-base titration? How can we calculate this error?

 

Chapter 4 Complexometric Titration

课时:2周,共10课时

Content

4.1 Introduction on complexometric titration

Teaching Outline: complexometry in analytical chemistry, property of EDTA and its application in complexometric titration

4.2 Complexometric equilibriums

Teaching Outline: stability (formation) constant, dissociation constant; distribution of various formations in aqueous solution; metal ion buffers

4.3 Conditional formation constant

Teaching Outline: side reactions; side reaction coefficient; conditional formation constant, acidic effect coefficient

4.4 Metal ion indicators,

Teaching Outline: working principle of metal ion indicators; transition point, selection of metal ion indicators; commonly used metal ion indicators

4.5 Basic principles for complexometric titration

Teaching Outline: titration curve and change of concentration during the titration process; factors influence the end point break; the titration error and its calculations

4.6 Acidity control in complexometric titration

Teaching Outline: feasibility of titration in a single metal ion solution; control of acidity single metal ion titration; the highest, the lowest and the best acidity; feasibility of titration test in multi-ion solutions

4.7 Methods for the improvement of selectivity in complexometric titration

Teaching Outline: control the acidity; masking agent and demasking agent

4.8 Application of complexometric titration

Teaching Outline: direct titration, indirect titration, back titration and displacement titration; masking; preparation and calibration of EDTA standard

Problems

1. What does conditional formation constant mean?

2. Why sometimes back titrations or indirect titrations should be used in complexometric titrations. Give at least one on each type.

3. How does an indicator work in a complexometric titration?

 

Chapter 5 Oxidation-reduction Titration

课时:2周,共6课时

Content

5.1 Redox equilibriums

Teaching Outline: formal potentials; ionic strength effect, side reaction effect; acidity effect; rate of redox reactions, self-catalyzed reaction and induced reaction

5.2 Redox titration

Teaching Outline: redox titration curve; end-point potential; redox indicators; commonly used indicators; pre-adjustment: pre-oxidation

5.3 Application of redox titration

Teaching Outline: potassium permanganate method; potassium dichromate; starch-iodine method, iodimetry (direct) and iodometry (indirect), use of starch indicator

Problems

1. What does formal potential mean?

2. What is a self-indicator? Given one example.

3. How to prepare standard solutions of KMnO4 and Na2S2O3?

4. What are the differences between iodometry and iodimetry?

Chapter 6 Precipitation titration

课时:1周,共3课时

Teaching Outline: Precipitation reaction, principles and applications of Mohr titration, Volhard titration and Fajans titration

Problems

1. List the typical examples of argentometry. What are the indicators used in these methods?

2. Why sometimes a blank titration is required? Give one example.

 

Chapter 7 Gravimetry

课时:2周,共6课时

Content

7.1 introductions

Teaching Outline: classification of gravimetry, procedure of gravimetric analysis; requirement on the precipitation form

7.2 solubility of precipitation

Teaching Outline: solubility and intrinsic solubility; activity product, solubility product and conditional solubility product; common ion effect, salt effect, acid effect, complexometric effect and other factors influence the solubility 

7.3 formation of precipitations

Teaching Outline: Classification of precipitations, crystalline precipitation and amorphous precipitation; Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation

7.4 Main factors influence the purity of precipitation

Teaching Outline: Coprecipitation, adsorption co precipitation, occlusion and inclusion; post precipitation

7.5 Conditions for precipitation and post treatment

Teaching Outline: Requirements for crystalline precipitation, amorphous precipitation; aging; homogeneous precipitation

7.6 Organic precipitation agents

Teaching Outline: Classification and commonly used organic precipitation agents

Problems

1. With continuous introduction of chloride into an AgNO3 solution, a U-shaped solubility curve is obtained toward silver, try explain this.

2. Why controlling pH sometimes is important for obtaining a good precipitate?

3. What is a homogeneous precipitation and what are the advantages of this method?

 

Chapter 8 Separation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry

课时:2周,共6课时

Content

8.1 introductions

Teaching Outline: Separation and classification, recovery

8.2 Precipitation

Teaching Outline: Inorganic precipitate, organic precipitate; separation and enrichment of co-precipitation

8.3 Liquid-liquid extraction

Teaching Outline: Essence of extraction, distribution constant and distribution ratio; efficiency of extraction, classification of extraction; requirements

8.4 Ion-exchange for separation

Teaching Outline: ion-exchange resin, properties and ion-exchange reactions; affinity; operations in ion-exchange; ion-exchange chromatography

8.5 chromatographic methods

Teaching Outline: Principle on chromatographic separation, classification; paper, thin-layer and column chromatography

8.6 other techniques for separation

Problems

1. List at least three methods for separation based on the differences on sizes.

2. Why continuous extraction is more powerful as compared with regular one?

3. How does a TLC work?

 

Chapter 9 introduction on Electrochemical Analysis

课时:1周,共4课时

Content

Teaching Outline: Classification of electrochemical methods, their applications

Electrochemical cells, potential, classification of cells, Cottrell equation, Farady’s law

Introduction on conductivity analysis

Problems

1. What do static methods and dynamic methods mean in electrochemical analyses?

2. What are the differences between an electrolytical cell and a galvanic cell?

 

Chapter 10 Pontentiometry

课时:2周,共6课时

Content

10.1 Basic principles

       Teaching Outline: Electrode potential and its relation with concentration, calomel electrode, electrodes of the first, second and third kind

10.2 ion-selective electrodes

       Teaching Outline: Glass electrode, single crystal electrode, polycrystalline or mixed crystal electrode, membrane electrode, membrane potentials and boundary potentials; Nernst equation; selectivity coefficients

10.3 Application of ion-selective electrodes

       Teaching Outline: Method for the detection of ion activity; definition and measurement of pH

10.4 Potentiometric titrations

       Teaching Outline: Types of potentiometric titration, working electrode; automatic potentiometric titrator

Problems

1. What is a potentiometric titration? What are differences between a potentiometric titration and a regular one?

2. What do SHE and SCE mean in electrochemical analysis? Which one is more popular in these two?

Chapter 11 Coulometry

课时:1周,共3课时

Content

11.1 Basic principles

       Teaching Outline: Applied potential and overpontential, influence of the solution component on electrolysis potential

11.2 Electricity gravimetric method

       Teaching Outline: Potentiostats; requirement for a quantitative electrolysis; application of Electricity gravimetric method

11.3 Coulometry

       Teaching Outline: Farady’s law, controlled-potential Coulometry; controlled-potential Coulometric titration; Automatic Coulometer

Problems

1. What does coulometric titration mean?

2. What does electrogravimetry mean?

 

Chapter 12 Polarography and Voltammetry

课时:2周,共6课时

Content

12.1 basic principles

Teaching Outline: Basic process of polarography and the setup; dropping mercury electrodes and solid electrodes; E-i curve;

12.2 Polarographic current

       Teaching Outline: Diffusion current and diffusion current equation; half-wave potential

12.3 Application of polarography

       Teaching Outline: quantitative and qualitative method for polarography, application of polarography

12.4 New polarography and voltammetry

       Teaching Outline: excitation signals in voltammetry; voltammetric instrumentation; hydrodynamic voltametry; cyclic and pulse voltammetry; application of voltametry and the stripping methods

Problems

1. What does the half-wave potential mean in the voltammogram? What is its relationship with the redox reaction

2. What does the limiting current mean in the voltammogram? How is this one related to the quantity of the species.

3. What does amperometry mean?

 

Assessment Methods

Exams (final 50%, mid 20%), Quizzes (20%), Assignments (10%)

 

 

                                Made by Jilin Yan

                      

Date 10.28. 2016