Course Syllabus for English-Taught Majors

General Chemistry (Inorganic Chemistry)-second semester ’Course Syllabus

 

Course Code09041032

Course Category:大类基础课程(Major Basic

MajorsChemistry

SemesterSpring

Total Hours 54 Hours         Credit3学分

Lecture Hours72 Hours         

InstructorsProfessor Chuanjiang Hu

Textbooks普通化学原理与应用(8版影印版)(General Chemistry:Principles and Modern Applications) 作者:(美国)彼德勒  

References

“Inorganic Chemistry”, Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G.

无机化学(3版影印版)/“Inorganic Chemistry” Miessler and Tarr

“Instant Notes in Inorganic Chemistry” P. A. Pox

“Basic Inorganic Chemistry” Albert F. Cotton

无机化学高等教育出版社

 

 

Teaching Aim

    Since this freshman level chemistry course is offered to students with a wide variety of majors, it is a unique mixture of inorganic and physical chemistry with very little analytical chemistry. In the second semester, it will include the following topics from these areas of chemistry over a period of two semesters: Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria, Chemical Thermodynamics, Electrochemistry, Coordination Chemistry, Element descriptions for main group elements and transition metals.


Chapter 19  Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria     

   Hours1 week4 hours

 

19-1 Solubility Product Constant,

The solubility product constant, , is the constant for the equilibrium established

between a solid solute and its ions in a saturated solution.

19-2 Relationship Between

Solubility and

19-3 Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria

The solubility of a slightly soluble ionic compound is lowered in the

presence of a second solute that furnishes a common ion.

19-4 Limitations of the Concept

The Diverse Noncommon Ion Effect: The Salt Effect

Incomplete Dissociation of Solute into Ions

19-5 Criteria for Precipitation and Its Completeness

19-6 Fractional Precipitation

Fractional precipitation is a technique in which two or more ions in solution,

each capable of being precipitated by the same reagent, are separated by

the proper use of that reagent: One ion is precipitated, while the other(s) remains

in solution.

19-7 Solubility and pH

The pH of a solution can affect the solubility of a salt to a large degree

19-8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions

The formation constant, , of a complex ion is

the equilibrium constant describing the formation of a complex ion from a

central ion and its attached groups.

19-9 Qualitative Cation Analysis

An analysis that aims at identifying the cations present

in a mixture is called qualitative cation analysis.

Problem:

What is the solubility of MnS, in grams per liter, in a buffer solution that is 0.100 M CH3COOH- 0.500 M NaCH3COO? For MnS, Kspa = 3 X 107.

Chapter 20           Thermodynamics (Spontaneous Change)        

   Hours1 week4 hours


20-1 Spontaneity:

The Meaning of

Spontaneous Change

A spontaneous process is a process that occurs in a system left to itself;

once started, no action from outside the system (external action) is necessary

to make the process continue.

 

20-2 The Concept of

Entropy

The thermodynamic property related to the way in which the energy of a system

is distributed among the available microscopic energy levels is called

entropy.

 

20-3 Evaluating Entropy and Entropy Changes

20-4 Criteria for Spontaneous Change:

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

All spontaneous processes produce an increase in the entropy of the

universe.

 

20-5 Standard Gibbs Energy Change,

We will find a special use for the Gibbs energy

change corresponding to reactants and products in their standard states the

standard Gibbs energy change,

 

20-6 Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium

20-7 DG and K as Functions of Temperature

20-8 Coupled Reactions

Combine a pair of reactions, one with a positive DG and one with a negative DG to obtain a spontaneous overall reaction.

Such paired reactions are called coupled reactions.

Problem:

Use the following data together with other data from the text to determine the temperature at which the equilibrium pressure of water vapor above the two solids in the following reaction is 75 Torr.

 
 
Chapter 21           Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry            

   Hours2 week8 hours



21-1 Electrode Potentials and Their Measurement

21-2 Standard Electrode Potentials

standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)

By international agreement, a standard electrode potential, measures

the tendency for a reduction process to occur at an electrode.

 

21-3 Ecell,DG, and K

21-4 Ecell as a Function of

Concentrations

21-5 Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions

A battery is a device that stores chemical energy for later release as electricity.

Primary cells.

Secondary cells.

Flow batteries and fuel cells.

 

21-6 Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells

21-7 Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur

Another type of electrochemical cell the electrolytic cell uses electricity to produce a

nonspontaneous reaction. The process in which a nonspontaneous reaction is

driven by the application of electric energy is called electrolysis.

 

21-8 Industrial Electrolysis Processes

Electrorefining

Electroplating

Electrosynthesis

 

Problem:

Show that for a combination of half-cell reactions that produce a standard reduction potential for a half-cell that is not directly observable, the standard reduction potential is

where ni is the number of electrons in each half-reaction of potential Ei°. Use the following half-reactions:

Chapter 22 and 23 Main-Group Element 

1. The group 18 elements
   Hours0.5 week2 hours

Introduction
Occurrence, extraction and uses
Physical properties
Compounds of xeon
Compounds of krypton and radon
Problem:

Write a chemical equation for the hydrolysis of XeF4 that yields XeO3, Xe, O2 and HF as products.

.


2. The group 17 elements Halogens
   Hours1.5 week6 hours

Introduction, trends & Group 7A/17 data
Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend
Reactions of halogens with other elements
Reaction between halide salts and conc. sulfuric acid
Tests for halogens and halide ions
Halogens - Extraction of halogens from natural sources
Uses of halogens & compounds
Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions
Volumetric analysis - titrations of chloride ions/iodine with silver nitrate/sodium thiosulfate
Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links
Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry
Problem:



The following properties of astatine have been measured or estimated: (a) covalent radius; (b) ionic radius (At-) (c) first ionization energy; (d) electron affinity; (e) electronegativity; (f) standard reduction potential. Based on periodic relationships and data in Table 22.4, what values would you expect for these properties?



3. The group 16 elementsThe Chalcogens 

   Hours2 week8 hours

Introduction
Occurrence , extraction and uses
Physical properties and bonding considerations
Hydrides
Metal sulfides, polysulfides, polyselenides and polytellurides
Halides
Oxides, oxoacids and hydroxides
Compounds of sulfur and selenium with nitrogen
Aqueous solution chemistry

Problem:

Which of the following reactions are likely to go tocompletion or very nearly so?

 

4. The group 15 elements
   Hours2 week8 hours

 
Introduction
Occurrence , extraction and uses
Physical properties
The elements
Hydrides
Nitrides, phosphides, arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides
Halides, oxohalides
Oxides, oxoacids 
Phosphazenes
Sulfides and selenides
Aqueous solution chemistry
Problem:

The structures of the NH3 and NF3 molecules are similar, yet the dipole moment for the NH3 molecule is rather large (1.47 debye) and that of the NF3 molecule is rather small (0.24 debye). Provide an explanation for this difference in the dipole moments.



5. The group 14 elements
  Hours1 week4 hours

Introduction
Occurrence , extraction and uses
Physical properties
Allotropes of carbon
Structural and chemical properties
Hydrides
Carbides, silicides, germides, stannides and plumbides
Halides
Oxides, oxoacids and hydroxides
Silicones
Sulfides
Cyanogen, silicon nitride and tin nitride
Aqueous solution chemistry
Problem:

Methane and sulfur vapor react to form carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide. Carbon disulfide reacts with Cl2(g) to form carbon tetrachloride and S2Cl2. Further reaction of carbon disulfide and S2Cl2 produces additional carbon tetrachloride and sulfur. Write a series of equations for the reactions described here.



6. The group 13 elements
   Hours1 week4 hours

Introduction
Occurrence , extraction and uses
Physical properties
The elements
Simple hydrides
Halides
Oxides and hydroxides
Compounds containing nitrogen
Salts of oxoacids
Metal borides carbaborane clusters
Problem:
7. Group 1 and 2: the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals

   Hours1 week4 hours


Alkali Metals - data and graphs
Alkaline Earth Metals - data and graphs 
General trends down the group and formulae
Oxygen reaction & oxides 
Water reaction & hydroxides 
Acid reaction & salts 
Chlorine reaction - halides 
Carbonates & hydrogen carbonates 
Solubility trends of OH, NO3, SO4, CO3
Thermal decomposition and stability of carbonates & nitrates
Alkali/Alkaline Earth Metals and their compounds
Problem:

Use information from the chapter to write chemical equations to represent each of the following:

(a) reaction of rubidium metal with water

(b) thermal decomposition of aqueous KHCO3

(c) combustion of lithium metal in oxygen gas

(d) action of concentrated aqueous H2SO4 on KCl(s)

(e) reaction of lithium hydride with water



Write chemical equations to represent the following:

(a) reduction of BeF2 to Be metal with Mg as a reducing agent

(b) reaction of barium metal with Br2(l)

(c) reduction of uranium(IV) oxide to uranium metal with calcium as the reducing agent

(d) calcination of dolomite, a mixed calcium magnesium carbonate (MgCO3.CaCO3)

(e) complete neutralization of phosphoric acid with quicklime

Chapter 25 Coordination Compounds and Bioinorganic chemistry

   Hours3 week12 hours

25-1 Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds:

An Overview

25-2 Ligands

A common feature shared by the ligands in coordination complexes is the ability

to donate electron pairs to central metal atoms or ions. Ligands are Lewis bases

 

25-3 Nomenclature

1. Anions as ligands are named by using the ending -o. As implied by Table 24.2,

normally -ide endings change to -o, -ite to -ito, and -ate to -ato.

2. Neutral molecules as ligands generally carry the unmodified name. For example,

the name ethylenediamine is used both for the free molecule and for the

molecule as a ligand. Aqua, ammine, carbonyl, and nitrosyl are important

exceptions (see Table 25.2).

3. The number of ligands of a given type is denoted by a prefix.

 As in many other cases, the prefix mono- is often not used. If the ligand name is a composite name that itself contains a numerical prefix, such as ethylenediamine,

place parentheses around the name and precede it with and so on. Thus, dichloro signifies two ions as ligands, and pentaaqua signifies five molecules. To indicate the presence of two ethylenediamine (en) ligands, we write bis(ethylenediamine).

4. When we name a complex, ligands are named first, in alphabetical order, followed by the name of the metal center. The oxidation state of the metal center is denoted by a Roman numeral. If the complex is an anion, the ending -ate is attached to the name of the metal. Prefixes (di, tri, bis, tris, ) are ignored in establishing the alphabetical

order. Thus, is called tetraaquadichlorochromium(III) ion; is dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) ion; and is tetrahydroxochromate(III) ion. For complex anions of a few of the metals, the English name is replaced by the Latin name given in Table 24.4. Thus, is the tetrachlorocuprate(II) ion.

5. When we write the formula of a complex, the chemical symbol of the metal center

is written first, followed by the formulas of anions and then neutral molecules. If there are two or more different anions or neutral molecules as ligands, they are written in alphabetical order according to the first chemical symbols of their formulas. Thus, in the formula of the tetraaminechloronitrito- N-cobalt(III) ion, precedes and both are placed ahead of the neutral molecules:

6. In names and formulas of coordination compounds, cations come first followed by

anions. This is the same order as in simple ionic compounds like NaCl for sodium chloride. For example, the formula represents the coordination compound tetraammineplatinum(II) tetrachloroplatinate(II).

 

25-4 Isomerism

Structural isomers differ in basic structure or bond type what ligands are bonded to the metal center and through which atoms. Stereoisomers have the same number and types of ligands and the same mode of attachment, but they differ in the way in which the ligands occupy the space around the metal center.

 

25-5 Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory

In the crystal field theory, bonding in a complex ion is considered to be an

electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus of the central

metal ion and electrons in the ligands. Repulsions also occur between the ligand

electrons and electrons in the central ion. In particular, the crystal field

theory focuses on the repulsions between ligand electrons and d electrons of

the central ion.

25-6 Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds and Crystal Field Theory

Using the Spectrochemical Series to Predict Magnetic Properties

 

25-7 Color and the Colors of Complexes

Primary, Secondary, and Complementary Colors

Primary, Secondary, and Complementary Colors

 

25-8 Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria

25-9 Acid Base Reactions of Complex Ions

25-10 Some Kinetic Considerations

25-11 Applications of Coordination Chemistry

Problem:

From each of the following names, you should be able to deduce the formula of the complex ion or coordination compound intended. Yet, these are not the best systematic names that can be written. Replace each name with one that is more acceptable: (a) cupric tetraammine ion; (b) dichlorotetraammine cobaltic chloride; (c) platinic(IV) hexachloride ion; (d) disodium copper tetrachloride; (e) dipotassium antimony(III) pentachloride.



Of the complex ions [Co(H2O)6]3+ and [Co(en)3]3+ one has a yellow color in aqueous solution; the other, blue. Match each ion with its expected color, and state your reason for doing so.

Chapter 24 The transition Elements 

   Hours2 week8 hours

 

24-1 General Properties

24-2 Principles of Extractive Metallurgy

The term metallurgy describes the general study of metals. Extractive metallurgy

describes the winning of metals from their ores.

 

24-3 Metallurgy of Iron and Steel

24-4 First-Row Transition Elements: Scandium to Manganese

24-5 The Iron Triad: Iron,

Cobalt, and Nickel

Oxidation States

Oxidation States

 

24-6 Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold

24-7 Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

Uses of the Group 12 Metals and Their Compounds

Mercury and Cadmium Poisoning

 

24-8 Lanthanides

Problem:

A solution is believed to contain one or more of the following ions: Cr3+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Ni2+. When the solution is treated with excess NaOH(aq), a precipitate forms.

The solution in contact with NH3 the precipitate is colorless. The precipitate is dissolved in HCl(aq), and the resulting solution is treated with No precipitation occurs. Based solely on these observations, what conclusions can you draw about the ions present in the original

solution? That is, which ion(s) are likely present, which are most likely not present, and about which can we not be certain?



 

 

考核方式 Assessment Methods:闭卷

 

 

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