‘General Chemistry (Inorganic Chemistry)-second semester ’Course Syllabus
Course Category：大类基础课程（Major Basic）
Total Hours： 54 Hours Credit：3学分
Lecture Hours：72 Hours
Instructors：Professor Chuanjiang Hu
Textbooks：普通化学原理与应用(第8版影印版)(General Chemistry:Principles and Modern Applications) 作者:(美国)彼德勒
“Inorganic Chemistry”, Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G.
无机化学(第3版影印版)/“Inorganic Chemistry” Miessler and Tarr，
“Instant Notes in Inorganic Chemistry” P. A. Pox
“Basic Inorganic Chemistry” Albert F. Cotton
Since this freshman level chemistry course is offered to students with a wide variety of majors, it is a unique mixture of inorganic and physical chemistry with very little analytical chemistry. In the second semester, it will include the following topics from these areas of chemistry over a period of two semesters: Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria, Chemical Thermodynamics, Electrochemistry, Coordination Chemistry, Element descriptions for main group elements and transition metals.
Chapter 19 Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria
Hours：1 week，4 hours
19-1 Solubility Product Constant,
The solubility product constant, , is the constant for the equilibrium established
between a solid solute and its ions in a saturated solution.
19-2 Relationship Between
19-3 Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria
The solubility of a slightly soluble ionic compound is lowered in the
presence of a second solute that furnishes a common ion.
19-4 Limitations of the Concept
The Diverse Noncommon Ion Effect: The Salt Effect
Incomplete Dissociation of Solute into Ions
19-5 Criteria for Precipitation and Its Completeness
19-6 Fractional Precipitation
Fractional precipitation is a technique in which two or more ions in solution,
each capable of being precipitated by the same reagent, are separated by
the proper use of that reagent: One ion is precipitated, while the other(s) remains
19-7 Solubility and pH
The pH of a solution can affect the solubility of a salt to a large degree
19-8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions
The formation constant, , of a complex ion is
the equilibrium constant describing the formation of a complex ion from a
central ion and its attached groups.
19-9 Qualitative Cation Analysis
An analysis that aims at identifying the cations present
in a mixture is called qualitative cation analysis.
What is the solubility of MnS, in grams per liter, in a buffer solution that is 0.100 M CH3COOH- 0.500 M NaCH3COO? For MnS, Kspa = 3 X 107.
Chapter 20 Thermodynamics (Spontaneous Change)
Hours：1 week，4 hours
The Meaning of
A spontaneous process is a process that occurs in a system left to itself;
once started, no action from outside the system (external action) is necessary
to make the process continue.
20-2 The Concept of
The thermodynamic property related to the way in which the energy of a system
is distributed among the available microscopic energy levels is called
20-3 Evaluating Entropy and Entropy Changes
20-4 Criteria for Spontaneous Change:
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
All spontaneous processes produce an increase in the entropy of the
20-5 Standard Gibbs Energy Change,
We will find a special use for the Gibbs energy
change corresponding to reactants and products in their standard states the
standard Gibbs energy change,
20-6 Gibbs Energy Change and Equilibrium
20-7 DG and K as Functions of Temperature
20-8 Coupled Reactions
Combine a pair of reactions, one with a positive DG and one with a negative DG to obtain a spontaneous overall reaction.
Such paired reactions are called coupled reactions.
Use the following data together with other data from the text to determine the temperature at which the equilibrium pressure of water vapor above the two solids in the following reaction is 75 Torr.
Chapter 21 Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Hours：2 week，8 hours
21-1 Electrode Potentials and Their Measurement
21-2 Standard Electrode Potentials
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE)
By international agreement, a standard electrode potential, measures
the tendency for a reduction process to occur at an electrode.
21-3 Ecell,DG, and K
21-4 Ecell as a Function of
21-5 Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions
A battery is a device that stores chemical energy for later release as electricity.
Flow batteries and fuel cells.
21-6 Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells
21-7 Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur
Another type of electrochemical cell the electrolytic cell uses electricity to produce a
nonspontaneous reaction. The process in which a nonspontaneous reaction is
driven by the application of electric energy is called electrolysis.
21-8 Industrial Electrolysis Processes
Show that for a combination of half-cell reactions that produce a standard reduction potential for a half-cell that is not directly observable, the standard reduction potential is
where ni is the number of electrons in each half-reaction of potential Ei°. Use the following half-reactions:
Chapter 22 and 23 Main-Group Element
1. The group 18 elements
Hours：0.5 week，2 hours
Occurrence, extraction and uses
Compounds of xeon
Compounds of krypton and radon
Write a chemical equation for the hydrolysis of XeF4 that yields XeO3, Xe, O2 and HF as products.
2. The group 17 elements Halogens
Hours：1.5 week，6 hours
Introduction, trends & Group 7A/17 data
Halogen displacement reaction and reactivity trend
Reactions of halogens with other elements
Tests for halogens and halide ions
Halogens - Extraction of halogens from natural sources
Uses of halogens & compounds
Oxidation & Reduction - more on redox reactions of halogens & halide ions
Volumetric analysis - titrations of chloride ions/iodine with silver nitrate/sodium thiosulfate
Ozone, CFC's and halogen organic chemistry links
Miscellaneous aspects of halogen chemistry
The following properties of astatine have been measured or estimated: (a) covalent radius; (b) ionic radius (At-) (c) first ionization energy; (d) electron affinity; (e) electronegativity; (f) standard reduction potential. Based on periodic relationships and data in Table 22.4, what values would you expect for these properties?
3. The group 16 elements：The Chalcogens
Hours：2 week，8 hoursIntroductionOccurrence , extraction and usesPhysical properties and bonding considerationsHydridesMetal sulfides, polysulfides, polyselenides and polytelluridesHalidesOxides, oxoacids and hydroxidesCompounds of sulfur and selenium with nitrogenAqueous solution chemistry
Which of the following reactions are likely to go tocompletion or very nearly so?
4. The group 15 elements
Hours：2 week，8 hours
IntroductionOccurrence , extraction and usesPhysical propertiesThe elementsHydridesNitrides, phosphides, arsenides, antimonides and bismuthidesHalides, oxohalidesOxides, oxoacidsPhosphazenesSulfides and selenidesAqueous solution chemistryProblem:
The structures of the NH3 and NF3 molecules are similar, yet the dipole moment for the NH3 molecule is rather large (1.47 debye) and that of the NF3 molecule is rather small (0.24 debye). Provide an explanation for this difference in the dipole moments.
5. The group 14 elements
Hours：1 week，4 hoursIntroductionOccurrence , extraction and usesPhysical propertiesAllotropes of carbonStructural and chemical propertiesHydridesCarbides, silicides, germides, stannides and plumbidesHalidesOxides, oxoacids and hydroxidesSiliconesSulfidesCyanogen, silicon nitride and tin nitrideAqueous solution chemistryProblem:
Methane and sulfur vapor react to form carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide. Carbon disulfide reacts with Cl2(g) to form carbon tetrachloride and S2Cl2. Further reaction of carbon disulfide and S2Cl2 produces additional carbon tetrachloride and sulfur. Write a series of equations for the reactions described here.
6. The group 13 elements
Hours：1 week，4 hoursIntroductionOccurrence , extraction and usesPhysical propertiesThe elementsSimple hydridesHalidesOxides and hydroxidesCompounds containing nitrogenSalts of oxoacidsMetal borides carbaborane clustersProblem:7. Group 1 and 2: the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals
Hours：1 week，4 hours
Alkali Metals - data and graphsAlkaline Earth Metals - data and graphsGeneral trends down the group and formulaeOxygen reaction & oxidesWater reaction & hydroxidesAcid reaction & saltsChlorine reaction - halidesCarbonates & hydrogen carbonatesSolubility trends of OH, NO3, SO4, CO3Thermal decomposition and stability of carbonates & nitratesAlkali/Alkaline Earth Metals and their compoundsProblem:
Use information from the chapter to write chemical equations to represent each of the following:
(a) reaction of rubidium metal with water
(b) thermal decomposition of aqueous KHCO3
(c) combustion of lithium metal in oxygen gas
(d) action of concentrated aqueous H2SO4 on KCl(s)
(e) reaction of lithium hydride with water
Write chemical equations to represent the following:
(a) reduction of BeF2 to Be metal with Mg as a reducing agent
(b) reaction of barium metal with Br2(l)
(c) reduction of uranium(IV) oxide to uranium metal with calcium as the reducing agent
(d) calcination of dolomite, a mixed calcium magnesium carbonate (MgCO3.CaCO3)
(e) complete neutralization of phosphoric acid with quicklimeChapter 25 Coordination Compounds （and Bioinorganic chemistry）
Hours：3 week，12 hours
25-1 Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds:
A common feature shared by the ligands in coordination complexes is the ability
to donate electron pairs to central metal atoms or ions. Ligands are Lewis bases
1. Anions as ligands are named by using the ending -o. As implied by Table 24.2,
normally -ide endings change to -o, -ite to -ito, and -ate to -ato.
2. Neutral molecules as ligands generally carry the unmodified name. For example,
the name ethylenediamine is used both for the free molecule and for the
molecule as a ligand. Aqua, ammine, carbonyl, and nitrosyl are important
exceptions (see Table 25.2).
3. The number of ligands of a given type is denoted by a prefix.
As in many other cases, the prefix mono- is often not used. If the ligand name is a composite name that itself contains a numerical prefix, such as ethylenediamine,
place parentheses around the name and precede it with and so on. Thus, dichloro signifies two ions as ligands, and pentaaqua signifies five molecules. To indicate the presence of two ethylenediamine (en) ligands, we write bis(ethylenediamine).
4. When we name a complex, ligands are named first, in alphabetical order, followed by the name of the metal center. The oxidation state of the metal center is denoted by a Roman numeral. If the complex is an anion, the ending -ate is attached to the name of the metal. Prefixes (di, tri, bis, tris, ) are ignored in establishing the alphabetical
order. Thus, is called tetraaquadichlorochromium(III) ion; is dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) ion; and is tetrahydroxochromate(III) ion. For complex anions of a few of the metals, the English name is replaced by the Latin name given in Table 24.4. Thus, is the tetrachlorocuprate(II) ion.
5. When we write the formula of a complex, the chemical symbol of the metal center
is written first, followed by the formulas of anions and then neutral molecules. If there are two or more different anions or neutral molecules as ligands, they are written in alphabetical order according to the first chemical symbols of their formulas. Thus, in the formula of the tetraaminechloronitrito- N-cobalt(III) ion, precedes and both are placed ahead of the neutral molecules:
6. In names and formulas of coordination compounds, cations come first followed by
anions. This is the same order as in simple ionic compounds like NaCl for sodium chloride. For example, the formula represents the coordination compound tetraammineplatinum(II) tetrachloroplatinate(II).
Structural isomers differ in basic structure or bond type what ligands are bonded to the metal center and through which atoms. Stereoisomers have the same number and types of ligands and the same mode of attachment, but they differ in the way in which the ligands occupy the space around the metal center.
25-5 Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory
In the crystal field theory, bonding in a complex ion is considered to be an
electrostatic attraction between the positively charged nucleus of the central
metal ion and electrons in the ligands. Repulsions also occur between the ligand
electrons and electrons in the central ion. In particular, the crystal field
theory focuses on the repulsions between ligand electrons and d electrons of
the central ion.
25-6 Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds and Crystal Field Theory
Using the Spectrochemical Series to Predict Magnetic Properties
25-7 Color and the Colors of Complexes
Primary, Secondary, and Complementary Colors
Primary, Secondary, and Complementary Colors
25-8 Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria
25-9 Acid Base Reactions of Complex Ions
25-10 Some Kinetic Considerations
25-11 Applications of Coordination Chemistry
From each of the following names, you should be able to deduce the formula of the complex ion or coordination compound intended. Yet, these are not the best systematic names that can be written. Replace each name with one that is more acceptable: (a) cupric tetraammine ion; (b) dichlorotetraammine cobaltic chloride; (c) platinic(IV) hexachloride ion; (d) disodium copper tetrachloride; (e) dipotassium antimony(III) pentachloride.
Of the complex ions [Co(H2O)6]3+ and [Co(en)3]3+ one has a yellow color in aqueous solution; the other, blue. Match each ion with its expected color, and state your reason for doing so.Chapter 24 The transition Elements
Hours：2 week，8 hours
24-1 General Properties
24-2 Principles of Extractive Metallurgy
The term metallurgy describes the general study of metals. Extractive metallurgy
describes the winning of metals from their ores.
24-3 Metallurgy of Iron and Steel
24-4 First-Row Transition Elements: Scandium to Manganese
24-5 The Iron Triad: Iron,
Cobalt, and Nickel
24-6 Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold
24-7 Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury
Uses of the Group 12 Metals and Their Compounds
Mercury and Cadmium Poisoning
A solution is believed to contain one or more of the following ions: Cr3+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Ni2+. When the solution is treated with excess NaOH(aq), a precipitate forms.
The solution in contact with NH3 the precipitate is colorless. The precipitate is dissolved in HCl(aq), and the resulting solution is treated with No precipitation occurs. Based solely on these observations, what conclusions can you draw about the ions present in the original
solution? That is, which ion(s) are likely present, which are most likely not present, and about which can we not be certain?
考核方式 Assessment Methods：闭卷
执笔人 Made by ：胡传江